Wednesday 22nd August 2018

    सरकार उड्नुपर्ने हो, तर हिँड्नपनि दिईएन : पूर्वमन्त्री तामाङ    नारायण पौडेल र सुमन महतको साहै नै रमाइलो तिज गित सार्वजनिक    भिम पौडेल र सरु थापा मगरको मायाकै पिर बरिलै तिज गित सार्वजनिक    गृहको निर्देशन उल्टाउँदै भौतिक, १२५ टिपरलाई २४सै घण्टा सञ्चालनको अनुमति    ३७ मेगाावाट क्षमताको माथिल्लो त्रिशूली थ्री ‘बी’ जलविद्युत् आयोजना निर्माण हुँदै

Management Transformation for Privatization in Education : Silwal


Management Transformation for Privatization in Education
Ram Hari Silwal
PhD Scholar, Lincoln College University
Himalaya College, Koteshwor

Abstract
Globalization has been an opportune and also challenge to developing and under developed countries as they are not ready to compete with highly developed countries in terms of goods and services. Notwithstanding, all countries have been indulged in the wave of globalization and privatization due to the rapid change of the world. Not a single country has been untouched with globalization. Privatization in education has been the outcome of globalization and liberalization. The main purpose of this study is to determine the necessity and reality of private schools with their mushrooming growth in Nepal especially after the restoration of democracy which put forward the issues and debates. Researcher has conducted the exploratory cum descriptive mixed method study by taking simple random sampling method to select the sample schools for the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. Data has been analyzed by using statistical tools and impact of independent variables was assessed. Correlation coefficient revealed that globalization and liberalization have positive influence on privatization of education which lead to quality education as a benchmark. The study has been concluded with the knowledge that the contribution of private schools has been recognized as the effective tools to attract people’s investment in education.

Key words
Globalization, Privatization, Quality education, Transnational, Elite, Opportune, Autonomy

Introduction
This research article is an international article for the one day post conference on Globalization: An Opportune moment for Private Education under Political Changes in Nepal. This study provides with the opportunity to assess and identify the emergence and contribution of private education in Nepal after the political changes 1990.Private education is known as the education activities run and controlled by the private person or institution free from the government control. Private schools have been categorized as per the availabilities of facilities. Public schools may receive regular government support and follow the education rules and regulation. It has been said that private schools do not receive any support from the government and managed by themselves but they have to follow some sorts of government rules like following the government prescribed text books and appear in national exams.
Private schools are under the ownership of individuals or group of people who make investment and are profit oriented. Some of the private schools are also under the public or private trusts which are supposed not to earn profit. Private schools might be established for the quality of education as perception of people. Many parents might be attracted to private education and send their children to private schools despite the high fee charged by the private schools.

About the private education, Beffield (2002) has stated that private education is the alternative provision of public education which is free from government regulation. Authors have further stated that the foundation of private education is the differentiated demand of people for social and economic betterment and ambition of parents for quality education.

Nepal has experienced several political changes for a long and there have been various changes in education policies and practices with the change in political system. In this context private education also has appeared and disappeared with the time change due to internal and external factors. Nepal has not been away from the Globalization, liberalization and privatization after the decade of 1980 in different sectors. The involvement of private sectors is one of the outcomes of globalization.

Once the education was nationalized in 1971 and continued till 1979.It was again privatized in 1979 with the amendment of education by law1979. It gave people a legal way to establish and run the private education. Private school is defined in terms of management, autonomy and funding in the world. OECD (2012) has asserted that the government school as fully funded and managed by government, private school which is government funded but private managed and private school with funded and managed by the private sector.

After the restoration of democracy1989, the national Education Commission1990 was formed in Nepal. It was a milestone for private investors to invest in education so that private schools established for the competence and quality education (Sharma & Sharma, 2011). The private education may come to the practice if the government cannot provide education for people as per their rising demand. It may be the coincidence with the liberalization and privatization of world economic policy.

It is said that quality education may bind together the past and future of the societies. Quality education may support and sustain the culture values and belief and inculcate desired ideas in our youths. It also may equip youths with necessary skills and abilities by giving enough exposures them. Quality education may offer youths the kinds of talents and capabilities too. Many research reports indicates that well to do family would like to prefer to send their children in private schools rather than disadvantaged family to impart the quality education to their children (OECD, 2012).

Royal High education commission 1983 and National education commission 1997 have welcomed private sectors for education as private public partnership. Private schools have addressed the high demand of parents for quality education even though private schools have not reached the remote and far distance where people have remained under education. The education act 2028 article 3 has the legal provision that any Nepalese citizen can establish and run the private schools on her/his own effort and invest through company or trust. According to this provision of education Act 2000 (7thamendment), the ownership can be transferred to successor in her/his lifetime or after her/his death.

OECD (2012) states that Sweden ,Norway, Finland,, Azerbaizen have 50% students studying in privately managed schools. There is 98%budget funded yearly by government on different headings of education in such countries. Similarly Kenya has 52%, Mexico 54%, Dubai 18%, and Peru 61% Indonesia 60% students studying in private school. Germany, Belgium, Hungary, Slovenia have put 80% government fund for the private education. United Kingdom, America, quatar,Jordan, Urugway, Newzealand, BrazilKazaksthan have only 10% government fund for private education.Belgium(70%),Netherland(66%),Ireland(62%),Chile(58%0,Makao(96%),Hongkong(93%), Dubai(79%) have students studying private schools.

Theme of the study
There was a popular movement in 1990 which paved the way for multiparty system. Private education system was highly encouraged and could play the positive role for quality education. When world entered into the globalization and privatization. In this regard it has been realized that Nepal also could not far from such phenomenon. The private educational institutes began to mushrooming in Nepal shortly after the restoration of Democracy 1990 with the popular movement. At the same time private education might began to increase due to the national and international circumstances. Government might focus on access to education rather than quality education at first. But gradually the government might be conscious for the quality education. Nepal committed and accepted the Universal education agenda in Jomtien 1990 which advocated access, quality and relevancy.

Political atmosphere of state may decide the quality of education. Political culture and activities may reflect in the education as well. Due to the change of political system of Nepal, schools came into sphere of political struggles with teachers, students, and working team of education aligning with party politics. Initially political parties mobilized the community school teachers, students, as a network to spread the ideology and agenda of political party. Private schools largely came to establish and be associated locally in identifying the political group of founders and principals in private education. Private schools have been highly suffered by the political instability and several schools were closed and infrastructures were destroyed in insurgency period. Political party always insisted government to control private education and make available for all people from working class to privileged. Private school teachers, school promoters and founders were displaced and suffered. Due to such activities, issues raised for and against the private education. Many scholars and educationist have differentiated thoughts for the private education system. The government had to decide for the private sector and they either had to be registered as profit making institution in company or as nonprofit making organization like foundation or trust. This decision was the mile stone and opportune moment for the private schools in Nepal

Objectives and Methodology
The general objective of the study was to explore and analyze the status of private education after the restoration of democracy in Nepal and the influence of globalization, liberalization and privatization as opportune moment for potential growth of private education. This study is explorative cum descriptive research based on the qualitative and quantitative research sapproaches. The validity of this research has been enhanced by the extensive and the participatory nature of the investigation. The reliability of this study is ensured with multiple source of evidence which leads to triangulation of data, the detailed, rich and thick descriptions of the researcher’s own assumptions and position in the study and conclusions.

Result and Findings
WDR has the highest number of schools from primary to higher secondary Level. FWDR has the lowest number of schools among all development regions. Similarly eastern mountainous region has the highest number of schools and Western Mountain has the lowest number of schools. Likewise western hill and eastern Terai have the greater number as compared to other hill and Terai belt of development regions.
Chart1: Number of Schools from primary to Higher Secondary Level

The above chart shows that western hill has the highest schools as compared to other hilly regions and eastern mountain has the highest number as compared to other mountainous regions. Similarly eastern Terai has the highest number as compared to other terai regions. The western mountain has the lowest number even if there is higher number of schools in western development region in totality.

Table 2: Student Number of private school from Grade 1-5
Region EDR CDR WDR MWDR FWDR
Mt 2534 2825 367 827 3013
Hill 1304 26585 94897 6964 3925
Terai 70468 23273 60827 19141 14789

The table shows that FWDR Mountain has the highest and WDR Mountain has the lowest number of private schools from 1 to 5. Similarly western hill has the highest and eastern hill has the lowest number of schools. Likewise eastern Terai has the highest and FWDR Terai has the lowest number of schools Chart 2: Number of students from grade 1-5
Chart 2: Students number of private schools from 1 to 5

The above chart shows that FWDR Mountain has the highest private schools as compared to four mountainous regions and WDR hill has the highest and Eastern hill has the lowest number of private schools from Grade 1 to 5. Likewise Eastern Terai has the highest and the Far western Terai has the lowest number of private schools as compared to other regions.
Table3: Number of students from Grade 6-8
Region EDR CDR WDR MWDR FWDR
Mt 537 1170 58 91 412
Hill 3065 16788 37680 778 884
Terai 25058 10325 24611 3592 4804

The table shows that in the mountainous regions of five development regions, there are 337 private schools from 6 to 8 in EDR and 1170 in central, 58 in western, 91 in mid western and 412 schools in far western development region. Among them Mountain of central development region has the highest number of schools and Mountain of western development region has the lowest number of private schools from 6 to 8.
Similarly western hill has the higher number and Mid western hill has the lowest number of private schools. Likewise eastern Terai has the highest and the Mid western Terai has the lowest number of schools.
Figure 3: Number of students 6 to 8

The above chart shows that CDR Mountain has the highest and MWDR Mountain has the lowest private schools from Grade 6 to 8. WDR hill has the highest and MWDR hill has the lowest number of schools as compared to four hilly regions and EDR Terai has the highest and MWDR Terai has the lowest number of private schools.

Table4: Number of students from Grade 9-12
Region EDR CDR WDR MWDR FWDR

Mt 217 1014
46 236 63
Hill 1889
8675 25728 841 682
Terai 18937 7404 20688 5476 4354

 

Chart4: Number of Students from grade 9-12

Private schools have been categorized as per the availabilities of facilities they provide to students. They charge differentiated fees for children as they do not get fund from government.

Public schools may receive regular government support on different headings of expenditures and bound to follow the education rules and regulation. Private schools are also bound to follow the certain rules of government from school registering process. They have to follow the curriculum, syllabus and examination process. Nepal has accepted the world liberalization, privatization and globalization even though different country has differentiated level of development in all aspects.

Parents have highly demanded private education for their children and even they have been sending their children foreign countries for quality education. They are found not compromising with quality education. The private education schools have stopped pupil from going out of the country. Private schools have been able to provide quality education in Nepal. Private education has contributed to nation for the revenue. Private education has contributed to nation for human resource. Private education has contributed to reduce the unemployment problems.
There are several issues for and against the private education. Some of them are in opinion that there must not have two types of education in the country as there are two types of citizens produced by the education as private and government. OECD (2012) has stated that quality education offer students kinds of talents and capabilities.
People are in opinion that private education has been able to fulfill the desire of parents for quality education within the country. They also claim that it has stopped the money to go overseas. Private schools are found to produce skilled manpower and has they could compete in the job market. Private education has contributed in the education because it has increased the rate of pass percent with distinction first division and so on.

There have been several turnings and boulders of private education in Nepal as private education promoters struggled very hard for establishing educational institutes. Several education acts, laws and by laws have been changed yet and provisions have been made for the private education. The education act 2028 article 3 has legal provision for Nepalese citizen to establish and run the private schools on her/his own effort and invest through company or trust.

Review of the policy practices
The present education act has incorporated all provisions of private education. Beside this there have been various amendments of education acts, education laws, by laws and rules. They have elaborated all the provisions and terms and conditions for the private schools, the curriculum, teachers’ appointment, duty, responsibilities, and school system. But it has been highly practiced in community schools as compared to private schools. But the present constitution has mentioned several provisions for the private schools.

The education act 2028 article 3 has legal provision for Nepalese citizen to establish and run the private schools on her/his own effort and invest through company or trust. Regarding this, MoE (2003) states that due to the high demand of education within and global circumstances, Nepal committed and accepted the Universal education agenda in Jomtien 1990 which advocated access, quality and relevancy. Political atmosphere of state may decide the quality of education. Political culture and activities may reflect in the education as well. It has been said that in various countries, there have not been any disturbances in schools even in instability of political system.
Theories behind the private education

Globalization theory has given momentous impact on private education practice, policy, structures and strategies in each and individual country. They have their own experience for practicing and have their own experience too. Due to differentiated cultural, political and economical and technological system, individual country’s private education has changed. There are several national and international institutes and agencies that have initiated to conduct the international seminars workshop that lead to fuel the globalization, privatization and liberalization.
Robinson (2010) has asserted that nationally tilted privileged class has often been depend on social replica of their own status and dependent on local development processes but transnational oriented elites are reflected in a connected shift to industrialization and global market. The author says that globalization represents a new era in the ongoing evolution of the world private enterprises by the rise of globally integrated privatization and financial system.

Robinson again put the Keynesian model of national corporate capitalism as world capitalist system. Several countries tended to pursue a multi-class development model along the radical Keynesian line which often reflects as populist, corporatist develop mentalist. There have been conflicts between nationally oriented and transnational oriented activist as they have opposite views. The private education is also the product of transnational oriented views as the English langue as international language is adopted in the private schools. There has been an English culture in the private schools,

Conclusion
Globalization has given opportunity and challenge both to developing and underdeveloped country in respect to education and other factors. The private education is also the outcome of globalization. This moment has given the opportunity to Nepali citizens to establish the private schools for fulfilling the desire of parents to impart the quality education to their children. The private education came to introduce due to under performance of community because parents always have demanded quality education. The quality education to some extent is available in private schools. Quality education may support and sustain the culture values and belief and inculcate desire in our youths. It equip youths with necessary skills and abilities by giving enough exposures. Private education was the coincidence of the liberalization and privatization of world economic policy.
Private schools have maintained the discipline of students for their better future. That is why parents are motivated to admit their children in the private schools. Private schools have adopted the academic environment for the pupils in the schools so that parents send their children to private schools in Nepal in spite of foreign schools. Private schools have created environment for the community schools for maintaining quality so that they have stated running the ECD for early children and English medium in the schools. Additions to this, private school have supported a few community schools in management system. That is how community schools are being revived soon and better. Private schools remained for a long under the uncertainty and instability in terms of the property rights. So, all the time they have demanded their ownership provision and separate education act for their security. Government also followed the patched of policy for time being and issues remained alive. Parents, students, teachers and other stakeholders are not satisfied with the private school promoters. Parents always want to reduce the fees and teachers want to get handsome salaries with their job guarantees. Stakeholders want to see the private schools from the perspective of quality, access, equity and relevancy.

Implications
This study has gathered various ideas and knowledge from various fields to make it effective and complete.
Implications for Principals: This study will be helpful to principals who always lead and direct the school, college and university as an effective leader. As being a head of the institution a principals may have all sort of knowledge like management, leadership, teaching learning pedagogy etc which support him/her for day to day work. This study will be the effective tool for such heads of the institution. Implication for principal and head teachers
Implication for managers: this study will be applicable to institutional managers because they always confront with the day to day work of management so that they can bring positive changes into the institution.
Implication for policy makers: this study will be applicable for policy makers to make policy and gu

ideline to move the institution ahead. This study has covered the various aspects of management theory and leadership. Addition to this, this study will support such educationist.

Implication for private promoters: This study will be applicable for private promoters and founders of private institutions. This study has covered all aspects of quality education, practices of private education that prevailed inside and outside the country.

Implication for educationists: This study will be helpful to educationists for their research and study regarding private education. Educationists who have the responsibility to sensitize people regarding education and its implication but there has been several issues regarding private and public education in Nepal. For this, this study will support them to visualize the private education scenario.

Implication for political leaders: This study will be helpful to political leaders because there have been changes of education with the change of political system in Nepal. Private education also has changed with the course of political changes frequently. Political leders are found to be in dilemma about the private education and its implication in Nepal. This study will give a direction to political leaders to discuss and decide the private education.

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